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History

Major find in the Vale of Pewsey : metal detectors' Roman hoard gives up rare evidence about ancient plant life

"At first we thought it might be a landmine."  [Photo: Marina Rae]"At first we thought it might be a landmine." [Photo: Marina Rae]Mick Rae, Rob Abbott and their friend Dave were detecting in a field in the Vale of Pewsey in October 2014 when they came across a hoard of eight metal vessels - including a cauldron and four small pans from weighing scales. 

The vessels were buried in a pit beneath about 350 millimetres of top-soil and, as one would expect, were in varying states of disrepair.  

The find was quickly identified as Roman.  The discovery was reported to Richard Henry who is Wiltshire's Finds Liaison Officer.  His role is to record archaeological finds made by members of the public – mostly metal detectorists, but also by people who are just walking in fields or digging in their back garden.

Most of the cauldron survives and a large copper-alloy vessel had been placed upside down into the cauldron - forming a sealed cavity.  What was inside?

[Photo: Marina Rae][Photo: Marina Rae]There were no gold necklaces or bronze coins in this hoard of Roman vessels. But what was found inside is worth its weight in gold to archaeologists - remains of plants preserved by the copper vessels' own micro-environment.   

Among the remains of the dried plants were heads of common knapweed and pieces of bracken.  They also found seeds of cowslips or primrose, milkwort, lesser hawkbit, sedges, clovers, vetches and sweet violet, fat hen, knot grass, black bindweed, buttercup and corn spurrey.  They may be what is left of some careful packing.

Remains of the flowers and bracken are now on display at the Wiltshire Museum in Devizes.  Organic matter never survives if buried unprotected in the Pewsey Vale's greensand - so to find dried plants and pollen this old provided the scientists with many opportunities for research.

Cauldron showing scale pans [Photo copyright Portable Antiquities Scheme]Cauldron showing scale pans [Photo copyright Portable Antiquities Scheme]  Vessel with dried plants [Photo copyright Portable Antiquities Scheme]Vessel with dried plants [Photo copyright Portable Antiquities Scheme]

The find did not count as 'treasure' so remains the property of the finder and the landowner.  The detectorists donated the organic material to Wiltshire Museum - the scientific processes used to test it with would ultimately destroy it.

Richard Henry led the quest to discover more about the find. He brought in a team to excavate the site of the discovery, led by David Roberts of Historic England with the Assistant County Archaeologist, members of the Wiltshire Archaeology Field Group and the finders.  They found shards of domestic and imported ceramics and ceramic building materials.

The project to analyse the plant remains has been led by the British Museum’s Portable Antiquities Scheme and supported by Historic England, Southampton University, the Association for Roman Archaeology and Wiltshire Museum.

Some of the flower heads from the hoard [Photo Steven Baker at Historic England - their copyright]Some of the flower heads from the hoard [Photo Steven Baker at Historic England - their copyright]The scientists discovered that the plants were dated between AD380 and AD550.   They believe the hoard was hidden sometime in the fifth and sixth centuries - during the early Anglo-Saxon period.  And interestingly, the find was within striking distance of the major Anglo-Saxon cemetery discovered in Blacknall Field - finds from which can be seen in the Wiltshire Museum in Devizes.

But if the age in years is a little speculative, the state of the plants reveals pretty accurately that they were picked and packed away in late summer soon after the harvest - late August to early October.

When their own kind of Brexit happened, the Romans obviously left much more behind them than roads, mosaics, villas and hoards of coins.

Wiltshire Museum's Director, David Dawson, is thrilled they can display this important material: “Richard Henry has led this remarkable partnership project, drawing specialists from across the country to piece together the fascinating story of the burial of Roman bronze cauldrons that took place on a summer’s day 1,500 years ago."

Richard Henry said “Such discoveries should be left in situ to allow full archaeological study of the find and its context. The finders did not clean or disturb the vessels which has allowed us to undertake detailed further research. If the vessels had been cleaned none of this research would have been possible.”

It is very tempting to imagine how this hoard came to be made so long after the vessels were first used. It is as though someone today decided to bury the Victorian kitchen pots Aunt Bertha inherited - and packed them with plants.

Why they were buried remains a matter for speculation. Does the careful packing of the metal vessels mean they were the antiques of their day? Were they, so long after the Roman era, still valued as useful cooking pots?  Or was this some kind of votive offering?

Marlborough.News understands that metal detector Dave aims to have the vessels professionally conserved.

Ruth Pelling and Stacey Adams will be talking about their research on the flowers and other recent Wiltshire discoveries at the Archaeology in Wiltshire Conference on April 1 in Devizes. Their talk is titled “Bake Off and Brewing in Roman and Early Saxon Wiltshire: recent archaeobotanical finds."

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New hope for iconic but dilapidated Wiltshire building

Devizes Assizes CourtDevizes Assizes CourtA dilapidated landmark building in Devizes could be given a new lease of life – as the county’s new museum.

Wiltshire Museum – which displays treasures from Avebury, Stonehenge, and further afield – is currently based in a former grammar school and two adjoining Georgian town houses in Long Street, Devizes.

But museum bosses want to move into the former Assize Court building in the town’s Northgate Street.

The distinctive Grade II* listed building, built in 1835 in the Classical style with ionic pillars, has been empty since the 1980s when it ceased to be used as a magistrates court.

Multiple plans to bring the building back into use have come and gone. It remains on the Historic England Buildings at Risk Register.

The current owner has had planning permission and listed building consent to convert the building into flats for a number of years but has not yet implemented the permission.

Museum director David Dawson said: “Relocating the museum to the Assize Courts would be a transformational project, linked to a newly revitalised area of the town. It could be a world-class building matching the importance of its internationally significant designated collections.

"The building would offer more space, including a café, new library and purpose-built galleries."

Mr Dawson said a business plan is being developed to ensure that a move would be financially sustainable, and any additional costs of running the new museum would be met from income from increased visitors and from investing the sale proceeds of the current property.

"There is lots of planning work to do over the next two years before a decision can be made on whether to go ahead with the project or not, and is conditional on the building being acquired for such use," he said.

"A major fund-raising campaign would be needed to restore the building to its former glory and create the new Museum, which could open in five to ten years’ time. Meanwhile the museum continues to develop its existing offer and attract increasing numbers of visitors and new members."

The proposals will be discussed at the AGM of the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society – which runs the museum – on Saturday, October 15 from 2.30pm at Devizes Town Hall.

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Britain's horse racing history told through fortunes won and lost by twenty-five racehorses

Chris McGrath at the White Horse BookshopChris McGrath at the White Horse BookshopIn July journalist Christopher McGrath came to the White Horse Bookshop to talk about his first book:  Mr Darley's Arabian (2016, John Murray).  For anyone interested in history or racing - or both - it is a fascinating read:

Following the descendants of the three Arab stallions that founded the British thoroughbred line and so spread flat racing around our islands, could land you up to here in bloodstock riddles.

For stud book fanatics it might be interesting to trace the line through the centuries and see how Mr Darley's Arabian (born 1700) and his progeny came to rule stables far and wide.  However it might also become extremely tedious - as tedious as those lengthy Old Testament chapters about who begat whom and how long they lived.

Chris McGrath - the one-time racing correspondent of The Independent - eschews the safety of the rails and takes us onto a far more interesting part of the course. His long book has a long and very instructive sub-title: "High life, low life, sporting life - A history of Racing in twenty-five horses."

McGrath introduces us to an amazing array of 'characters' and takes us through a whole series of extraordinary tales, scandals and races. It is a bit as though William Powell Frith's famous painting of Victorian racing - The Derby Day - has been crossed with some of Hogarth's most distressing satirical prints.

There is a great sketch of the Running Rein scandal - the horse that won the Derby (a race even in the 1840s confined to three-year-olds) and turned out to be a four-year-old called Maccabaeus.  

In case that name rings a bell, there was an Old Testament priest called Judas Maccabaeus who led a revolt against Greek imperialists - racehorses have always been saddled with strange names.  In the 1770s a son of the great racehorse Eclipse  (painted by Stubbs and still honoured with Sandown's Group One Eclipse Stakes) was named Potatoes.

But when a groom with little education was asked to write his name on his corn bin, his name came out as 'Potoooooooo'.  The horse's owner, the eccentric Lord Abingdon, was so taken by this that he changed the horse's name to Pot8os - not a name to please present day racing authorities.

As we follow racing into the realms of 'big money', things get worse with a number of jockeys and gamblers committing suicide or, in the case of some jockeys, dying early or in penury - proving again how fleeting fame can be.

Beneath McGrath's colourful collection of 'blacklegs, betting men and loose characters of every description' lies a grand if not always very cheerful vista of social history.  After all, over the centuries racing as has been claimed to be the one sport that brings together all classes and conditions in one place - the racecourse.

Among McGrath's stories is one that tells us a lot about the nineteenth century.  A trainer won £25,000 betting on his entry in the 1856 Derby - in terms of living standards worth about £2.4 million today.  He put the money in a hat box and left the hat box on train.  It was returned to him some days later with the money intact - after it had travelled to Aberdeen and back.

Local interest in this book centres on one place - Russley Park near Baydon - and on one man - Robert Sangster.

Russley Park was where the Glaswegian 'iron master' James Merry had his stables in the 1850s and launched many winning horses and two famous trainers, Mat Dawson and Robert Peck who both favoured gentler training methods.  But trainers had not yet won a dominant place in the sport and Dawson was paid £5 a week by Merry.  There is still a house at Russley called Trainers House.

James Merry - he called himself 'the Glasgae body' - was a new money man of the Industrial Revolution who was despised by the aristocrats of the turf: "James Merry conformed to the crudest caricatures of the new smokestack barons...As a perennial outsider, he trusted nobody and was constantly sacking even the most upstanding trainers and jockeys."

In the twentieth century, Robert Sangster's obsessive desire was, in his own words, 'to get hold of the racing business by the neck, and shake it.'  Or, as some might have put it, shake the money out of it.  In 1985 he paid £6 million for Marlborough's famed Manton House stables - his father had founded Vernons football pools.

Manton became the centre of his racing operations in Britain with a string of great horses and great trainers: Michael Dickjnson, Barry Hills, Peter Chapple-Hyam and John Gosden.  Sangster died of cancer in 2004 - leaving his great rivals Dubai 's Maktoum brothers to make their indelible mark on the sport.

After the dark days of the two world wars, this marvellous history book closes with the terrible story of the great trainer Henry Cecil and the greatest horse he trained, Frankel.  

This was an era reported on daily by McGrath - and you can tell he feels the ups and downs of the story really personally.  However, my abiding response to the book is that McGrath adored his research - and it is this that shines through the pages.

If you are into pub quizzes there is arcane information galore in those pages.  You can astound your team by telling them how Lester Piggott's first name came from the jockey Fred Rickaby - a winner of five classics.  

After an MP accused Lord Derby - a First World War government minister and major racehorse owner - of shielding Rickaby from war service, the young jockey was drafted into the forces and died of wounds a month before the Armistice.  His sister, Mrs Iris Piggott, marked Frederick Lester Rickaby's death by giving her newborn son her brother's middle name.

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Major conference will celebrate 30 years of Avebury’s World Heritage Site status

AveburyAveburyA major conference this autumn will celebrate the 30th anniversary of Avebury becoming a World Heritage Site.

Stonehenge and Avebury became one of the first seven sites across the globe to be awarded World Heritage Site status by The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1986.

The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity.

During 2016, English Heritage, the National Trust, the Wiltshire Museum, CBA Wessex and the RSPB and others are all helping to celebrate this anniversary with events taking place throughout the year.

The highlight will be a conference taking place in Devizes on Saturday 19 and Sunday 20 November.

Speakers will include Dr Alison Sheridan (National Museums of Scotland), Dr Serge Cassen (University of Nantes), Professor Tim Darvill (University of Bournemouth), Professor Vince Gaffney (University of Bradford), Dr Josh Pollard (University of Southampton), and archaeologist and TV presenter Julian Richards.

The Conference will aim to celebrate the achievements of the past 30 years and look forward to what further discoveries may be found in the future.

The conference will also celebrate the significant achievements of the past 30 years, including:

  • The preservation of 750 hectares of land as pasture to protect fragile archaeological remains and enhance biodiversity.
  • The stabilisation and conservation of Silbury Hill in 2007, making good the work undertaken by antiquarians of the 18th and 19th centuries and archaeologists of the mid 20th century.
  • The publication of the first joint Stonehenge and Avebury WHS Management Plan in May last year.

For more information about the conference, or to book a place, log on to www.stonehengeandaveburywhs.org/30th-anniversary-conference

 

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Avebury stone circles were actually ovals, says amateur archaeologist

 

Paul DawPaul DawA former professional surveyor says the map of Avebury – unchallenged since the 1700s – needs to be redrawn.

Amateur archaeologist Paul Daw spent 18 days mapping the neolithic site between September 2013 and July last year, using metal dowsing rods, as well as his experience of building and planning as a surveyor.

The 39-page report produced from his findings suggests that the Inner South Circle was not a circle, but in fact egg-shaped.

“The maps showing stone circles were produced by William Stukeley in the 1720s,” says Mr Daw, who is secretary of the Stone Circle and Henge Trust.

“But when Stukeley visited, 90 percent of the stones had been destroyed. In fact, it is believed that many were used to build the chapel in Green Street.

My Daw says his finds could change the way we think about Avebury.

“I have also located the inner North Stone Circle, which is far from circular as Stukeley thought it to be, and I have found that stones Stukeley thought were part of the Inner North Circle are, in fact, part of a collection of smaller stone circles, and possibly some timber circles.”

Two of those smaller circles, he says, may have been deliberately sited within The Great Henge as they are on elevated spots visible from the top of Silbury Hill.

“Anyone processing along the West Kennet Avenue and through the southern entrance stones would become visible from the top of Silbury Hill the moment they stepped inside the Inner Stone Circle,” he says. “I find it hard to believe this could be a coincidence.”

“At the Great Circle Henge I have found that there were nine stone or timber circles, and two mini henges, in addition to the Cove, both of which have been located using magnetometry [the archaeological equivalent of an x-ray] and aerial photography.”

He says he has also identified an avenue at the northern entrance of the Great Circle.

Mr Daw uses dowsing rods to locate the socket positions of missing stones. As Alexander Keiller discovered in the 1930s, the large stones were propped up in their foundations by an infill of rubble. It is these remains - marked by Keiller with concrete markers wherever he found them - that Mr Daw says dowsing can help to identify.

He recognises the scepticism of many in the archaeological community towards dowsing, but is at pains to point out that he has been mapping stone circles since 1998, while he only started dowsing in 2007, after being introduced to it at the Rollright Stones in Oxfordshire.

He’ll even admit he doesn’t know how it works. “I have a medical condition where I have too much iron in my blood,” he says. “It could be that. I really don’t know.

His finds have been logged at Wiltshire Council’s Historic Environment Record.

 

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A chance to question the author who has written the true story of British decision-making in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars

 

Christopher ElliottChristopher Elliott"How could very good, committed and able civil and military public servants not be rewarded with greater success for the United Kingdom in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan?"  That was the question retired major general Christopher Elliott set out to answer in his book High Command - British Military Leadership in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars.

Christopher Elliott and his wife have lived near Pewsey for fifteen years.  When Marlborough News Online went to see him this week he said he was amazed by the response High Command has had.  The book, published by the independent publisher Hurst, arrived at their warehouse on January 6 and had sold out by February 21.  A reprint was ordered on February 15.

As a piece of very contemporary historical research it has met with glowing reviews - and he has been addressing MPs and giving evidence to the House of Commons' Defence Select Committee - answering their very pointed political questioning.  

He was called to give evidence for the MPs' inquiry into "Decision making in defence policy: structures in the Ministry of Defence and Government" - a title which could perhaps have come straight off the proposal he sent to his publisher.  (The transcript of his evidence is here.)

Now there is a chance to question Christopher Elliott at the Merchant's House on Tuesday March 17 at 7.15pm.   At the event organised by the White Horse Bookshop, the author will be cross-examined for half-an-hour by retired Brigadier Robin Gamble, formerly of the Royal Green Jackets, who also lives near Pewsey.  That will be followed by questions from the audience.

Christopher Elliott, CB MBE, was commissioned into the Royal Engineers and retired as a major general from the British Army in 2002, having been the Director of Military Operations, Commander 6th Armoured Brigade, and held a number of senior posts at the Ministry of Defence,

After he retired he began a second career in industry and started his own electronics company.  

Now he is into his third career - as an academic. He is currently a Visiting Professor at Cranfield University and an Associate Fellow of the respected military 'think tank' the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI).   High Command was written while he was a research fellow at the Universities of Oxford and Reading - working under the eminent military historian Professor Sir Hew Strachan.  He still retains his research fellowship, but says another book is unlikely...

Professor Elliott's research for his book included written the evidence of transcripts of the Chilcot Inquiry hearings, but relied mainly on his own interviews with a cross-section of key players - soldiers, civil servants and politicians.  

One reviewer called the book a 'primer to the long-overdue Chilcot inquiry' and the very unofficial Army Rumour Service website and forum wrote:  "In direct and pithy terms, Christopher Elliott...makes the case that [the Ministry of Defence] is not currently fit for purpose and details why and how it failed to provide the required direction for the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq."

You get a flavour of Professor Elliott's approach from this short excerpt from the Defence Committee hearing - he is talking about the senior soldiers he interviewed: "The remarkable thing I found—I was not looking for this—was that everybody said they had no problem with their Defence politicians; they were all very good at serving and wanted to do it...Everybody says, “The politicians got it wrong,” but it is much more complex than that."

Further details of this event are in our What's On calendar.  At Tuesday's event there will be an opportunity to buy signed copies of High Command.

 

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How laws signed by King Henry III of England at Marlborough Castle will meet their end

Effigy of King Henry IIIEffigy of King Henry IIIIf you are an avid and discerning collector of government policy consultations here's a very rare one indeed - it includes references to Henry III of England, Marlborough Castle and some very, very old laws.

The Law Commission is consulting on a new round of statute repeals - tidying up the heap of laws that build up over the centuries and have, for one reason or another, become redundant.  This Repeal Bill will include two of the four remaining parts of the United Kingdom's oldest piece of statute law - it's called the Statute of Marlborough.

The Statute of Marlborough was a set of laws signed by King Henry III of England in 1267 while Parliament was meeting at Marlborough Castle.  In general they were in support of order and of the established powers.  Four 'chapters' (as they were called) of the Statute are still legally valid.

The Law Commission's list of laws ripe for repeal includes a bunch of Finance Acts that are well past their sell by date and a 1964 Act to clear slums and promote house building.  A more recent victim for repeal is the 1997 Act authorising referendums for setting up the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly - as the referendums are now history, the Act is redundant and will be consigned to the footnotes.

The list also includes several laws from the Second World War that aimed to maximise agricultural output and so defeat the U-boats.  The Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act of 1943 "now contains no remaining substantive provisions.  Its repeal is proposed on the grounds that it is obsolete."  What a sad way to slide into history.

From the same period, the Treason Act of 1945 will go completely.  It was a 'purely procedural' Act.  But it certainly claims a footnote in history: had it not been passed the prosecution of William Joyce (aka Lord Haw Haw), who broadcast Nazi propaganda to Britain from Germany, might have failed.

One legal authority has said that if the statutory requirement for corroboration had not been repealed by the 1945 Act, William Joyce could not have been convicted on the basis of the evidence offered at his trial.

Marlborough Castle - how it could have lookedMarlborough Castle - how it could have lookedThe Statute of Marlborough has in one instance divided the Commission's legal experts.  

Three of its extant laws  (1,4 and 15) are often called the 'Distress Act'.  These govern the recovery of rent or other money owed (in Medieval and legal parlance 'distresses') making it illegal to do so except through the courts.

Chapter 15 lays down where 'distresses' are forbidden to be taken - including the 'King's Highway' and the 'Common Street'.  In plain language this chapter stops actions to remedy a breach of one person against another being taken in the street etc.   Maybe these chapters were the foundation stone of the solicitors' professional monopoly in dealing with such disputes.

Chapter 23 (sometimes called the 'Waste Act 1267') prohibited tenants 'making waste' (or perhaps as we would say today 'laying waste') to land they hold in tenancy - or 'alienating' or selling it.  

The Law Commission wants to repeal Chapters 4 and 15 as a law of 2007 abolished 'distress' replacing it with a statutory procedure for debt recovery.  So 4 and 15 "no longer serve any useful function."

But Chapter 1 will stay on the statute books as it goes further than the 2007 Act "by making it an offence to take revenge or distress without the authority of the courts, rather than simply acting as an enforcement agent without due authority."   The drafters of the 2007 Act did not get everything right.

Chapter 23 will remain on the statute books because "Opinions differ as to whether or not it serves any useful function today, and as a result it is not suitable for inclusion in a Statute Law (Repeals) Bill."

Those chapters of the Marlborough Statute which have already been repealed included legislation on subjects with Norman legal titles that would delight a crossword setter: including redisseisin, beaupleader, essoins, guardians in socage, replevin - and, in plainer English, resisting the King's officers.

And when someone tells the Law Commission's consultation that Magna Carta (signed in 1215) was an even older piece of Statute Law, they will quickly reply that Magna Carta was only copied into the statute rolls to become law in 1297.

The consultation runs until 27 February 2015.

For a history of Marlborough Castle written by David du Croz for Marlborough News Online - see the Visiting Marlborough section.

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